THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA |
Approved by the People's Assembly on December 28, 1976
The Albanian people have blazed the trail of history sword in hand. In struggle against their internal and external enemies, they have defended their existence as a people and nation, have fought for national freedom and independence, for their land and mother tongue, for their livelihood and social justice. After centuries of bondage, they achieved a major victory with the creation of the independent Albanian national state in November 28, 1912.
The national democratic and revolutionary movement was given a new impulse and content with the triumph of the great October Socialist Revolution and with the spread of communist ideas, which marked a decisive turning point for the fate of the Albanian people, too.
In the grave conditions of fascist and nazi occupation, and betrayed by the ruling classes, the Albanian people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Albania (today, the Party of Labour) united in the National Liberation Front, rose to their feet, and arms in hand hurled themselves into the greatest war of their history for national and social liberation. In the fire of the war for freedom, on the ruins of the old state power, the new Albanian state of people's democracy emerged as a form of the dictatorship of the proletariat. On November 29, 1944, Albania won genuine independence and the Albanian people took their fate into their own hands. The people's revolution triumphed and a new epoch, the epoch of socialism, was opened.
In the conditions of the people's state power, under the leadership of the Party of the working class, great social-economic changes were carried out, which were outlined by the first Constitution of the Albanian socialist state. The domination by foreign capital and plunder of the country's riches was ended. The capitalists and big land owners were expropriated and the main means of production passed into the hands of the people. They way was opened for the socialist industrialization of the country. The Land Reform gave the land to those who till it, and the collectivization of agriculture set the countryside on the road of socialism.
Social ownership over the means of production and the single system of socialist economy, which prevails in town and countryside, replaced the private ownership and the multi-form economy. The exploiting classes and the exploitation of man by man were liquidated. The entire social development proceeds consciously, according to plan, and in the interest of the people.
In socialist Albania, the working class is the leading class of the state and the society. New relations of mutual assistance and cooperation have been established between the two friendly classes of our society, the working class and the cooperativist peasantry, as well as the stratum of the people's intelligentsia. The work readily contributed by free people has become the decisive factor in the flourishing of the socialist homeland, in raising the general and individual wellbeing. Albania has overcome its age-old backwardness and has been transformed into a country with advanced industry and agriculture.
The vital forces of the people were freed and their inexhaustible creative energies burst out. In the unceasing process of the revolution the Albanian woman won equality in all fields, became a great social force, and is advancing towards her complete emancipation. Education and culture have become the property of the broad masses of the people, and science and knowledge have been placed at the service of society. The foundations of religious obscurantism were smashed. The moral figure of the working man, his consciousness, and world outlook, are moulded on the basis of the proletarian ideology, which has become the dominant ideology.
Socialism has shown its absolute superiority over the old exploiting order.
Albania has entered the stage of the complete construction of socialist society. The great historic changes have created new conditions for the continuous development of the revolution and socialist construction.
The waging of the class struggle in favour of socialism, the continuous strengthening of the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the deepening of socialist democracy, the development of the productive forces and the perfecting of socialist relations of production, the steady raising of the wellbeing of the working masses, the gradual narrowing of distinctions between industry and agriculture, town and country, mental and physical labour, the affirmation of the personality of man within the socialist collectivity, the mastering of contemporary technology and science, the continuous revolutionization of the entire life of the country, are the main ways through which the socialist society is growing stronger and advancing.
The Albanian people are determined to defend their national independence, the people's state power and their socialist victories against any enemy. Socialist Albania is always an active factor in the struggle for national and social liberation, for peace, freedom, and the rights of all the peoples against imperialism, reaction, and revisionism. In its foreign policy it is guided by the great ideals of socialism and communism, and fights for their triumph the world over.
The Albanian people have found constant inspiration in the great doctrine of Marxism-Leninism, under the banner of which, united round the Party of Labour and under its leadership, they are carrying forward the construction of socialist society to pass over, later, gradually to communist society.
THE SOCIAL ORDER
A. THE POLITICAL ORDER
Albania is a People's Socialist Republic.
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people.
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is based on the unity of the people round the Party of Labour of Albania and it has as its foundation the alliance of the working class with the cooperativist peasantry under the leadership of the working class.
The Party of Labour of Albania, the vanguard of the working class, is the sole leading political force of the state and the society.
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania the dominant ideology is Marxism-Leninism. The entire socialist social order is developed on the basis of its principles.
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania unceasingly develops the revolution by adhering to the class struggle and aims at ensuring the final victory of the socialist road over the capitalist road, at achieving the complete construction of socialism and communism.
All state power in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania derives from and belongs to the working people.
The working class, the cooperativist peasantry and the other working people, exercise their state power through the representative organs as well as directly.
The representative organs are the People's Assembly and the people's councils.
No one else apart from the organs expressly defined in this Constitution, can exercise the sovereignty of the people and any of its attributes in the name of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.
The representative organs direct and control the activity of all the other state organs, which are responsible to them and render account to them.
In all their work, the representative organs and other state organs rely on the creative initiative of the masses of the working people, draw them into running the country, and render account before them.
The representative organs are elected by the people through universal suffrage with equal, direct and secret voting.
The electors have the right to recall their representative at any time when he has lost their political trust, when he does not fulfil the tasks he is charged with, or when he acts in contravention of the laws.
The organization and procedure in holding elections are regulated by law.
Officials serve the people and render account before them, participate directly in work in production, and are paid salaries in fair ratio with those of the workers and cooperativists, with the aim of preventing the creation of a privileged stratum. The pay ratio is set by law.
Under the leadership of the Party of Labour of Albania, the working class, as the leading class of the society, the cooperativist peasantry, as well as the other working people, exercise direct and organized control over the activity of state organs, economic and social organizations and their workers, for the purpose of defending the victories of the revolution and strengthening the socialist order.
The organization of the state and state activity, all the political and economic life in the- People's Socialist Republic of Albania are based on the principle of democratic centralism and develop according to it, combining the centralized direction with the creative initiative of local organs and the masses of the working people, in struggle against bureaucracy and liberalism.
The precise and equal implementation of the Constitution and laws, which express the will of the working class and the other masses of the working people is obligatory in all the activity of the state organs, economic and social organizations and officials.
The state relies on the social organizations, cooperates with them, and creates conditions for the development of their activity.
The social organizations unite the masses and broad strata of the people, draw them, in an organized way, into the running of the country, the socialist construction and the defence of the country, work for their communist education and take care of the solution of their individual problems.
In the construction of socialism, the People's Socialist Republic of Albania relies mainly on its own forces.
In foreign relations the People's Socialist Republic of Albania proceeds from the principles of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism, follows the policy of friendship, collaboration, and mutual assistance with the socialist states, supports the revolutionary movement of the working class and the struggle of the peoples for freedom, independence, social progress and socialism and relies on their solidarity.
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is for peace and good neighbourliness, for relations with all states on the basis of equality, respect for sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit.
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania opposes any form of aggression, colonial exploitation, tutelage, dictate and hegemony, national oppression and racial discrimination. It upholds the principle of self-determination of the peoples, the exercise of full national sovereignty and equality of all countries in international relations.
B. THE ECONOMIC ORDER
The economy of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a socialist economy which is based on the socialist ownership of the means of production.
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania there are no exploiting classes, private property and the exploitation of man by man have been liquidated and are forbidden.
The socialist property is the inviolable basis of the socialist order, the source of the wellbeing of the people and of the might of the homeland; it has special protection from the state.
Socialist property is comprised of the state property and the cooperativist property in agriculture.
State property belongs to the whole people and is the highest form of socialist property.
The following are property of the state alone: the land and underground riches, the mines, forests, pastures, waters, natural energy resources, the plants, factories, machine and tractor stations, the banks, the roads of communication and means of rail, water, and air transport, post, telegraph, telephone offices, radio and TV stations, cinematography.
Any other wealth which is created in the state sector or which the state gains according to law, is also state property.
Land is granted for social use to the economic enterprises and state institutions, to the agricultural cooperatives and social organizations, and for the personal use of individual citizens. Land is granted for use free of charge.
Agricultural land may be used for other purposes only with the consent of the respective state organs.