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绍库布兰德 2012-05-08 10:02
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA \|Ya*8V  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国宪法 \}NZ] l  
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Approved by the People's Assembly on December 28, 1976 ED R*1!d  
于1976年12月28日由人民议会通过 >`+-Yi$(\  
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INTRODUCTION 0Kenyn4?  
序言 5}_DyoV  
The Albanian people have blazed the trail of history sword in hand. In struggle against their internal and external enemies, they have defended their existence as a people and nation, have fought for national freedom and independence, for their land and mother tongue, for their livelihood and social justice. After centuries of bondage, they achieved a major victory with the creation of the independent Albanian national state in November 28, 1912. DSx D531[A  
阿尔巴尼亚人民已经将历史之剑握于自己手中了。在同国内外敌人的斗争中,阿尔巴尼亚人民捍卫了自己的民族和国家,并且为了民族的独立和自由、为了他们的土地和母语、为了的生存和社会的正义而战斗。在受奴役的时代过去之后,阿尔巴尼亚人民于1912年11月28日取得了创建独立的阿尔巴尼亚民族国家的伟大胜利。 { w:9w  
The national democratic and revolutionary movement was given a new impulse and content with the triumph of the great October Socialist Revolution and with the spread of communist ideas, which marked a decisive turning point for the fate of the Albanian people, too. ~yuj;9m3  
伴随着十月革命的胜利和共产主义理念的传播,我国的民主革命运动被赋予了新的动力和内容,这也成为了阿尔巴尼亚人民的前途和命运的重大转折点。 0qMf6  
In the grave conditions of fascist and nazi occupation, and betrayed by the ruling classes, the Albanian people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Albania (today, the Party of Labour) united in the National Liberation Front, rose to their feet, and arms in hand hurled themselves into the greatest war of their history for national and social liberation. In the fire of the war for freedom, on the ruins of the old state power, the new Albanian state of people's democracy emerged as a form of the dictatorship of the proletariat. On November 29, 1944, Albania won genuine independence and the Albanian people took their fate into their own hands. The people's revolution triumphed and a new epoch, the epoch of socialism, was opened. LjA>H>8%[  
于纳粹法西斯占领、统治阶级背叛这样的艰苦环境中,阿尔巴尼亚人民在阿尔巴尼亚共产党(今阿尔巴尼亚劳动党)的领导下,团结在民族解放战线中,迈开步伐、拿起武器,投身于历史上最伟大的民族社会解放战争中。在追求自由的战火中、在旧的国家权力的废墟上,新兴的人民民主的阿尔巴尼亚国家作为工人阶级专政的形式出现了。在1944年11月29日,阿尔巴尼亚赢得了真正的独立,阿尔巴尼亚人民把命运掌握在了自己的手中。人民革命取得了胜利,一个新的纪元——社会主义的新纪元——开启了。 ZVmgQ7m  
In the conditions of the people's state power, under the leadership of the Party of the working class, great social-economic changes were carried out, which were outlined by the first Constitution of the Albanian socialist state. The domination by foreign capital and plunder of the country's riches was ended. The capitalists and big land owners were expropriated and the main means of production passed into the hands of the people. They way was opened for the socialist industrialization of the country. The Land Reform gave the land to those who till it, and the collectivization of agriculture set the countryside on the road of socialism. gEQevy`T%c  
在人民的国家权力的条件下,在工人阶级的党的领导下,伟大的社会经济变革发生了,这些变革都被载入了阿尔巴尼亚社会主义祖国的第一部宪法中。外国资本的控制及其对国家财富的掠夺结束了。资产阶级和大地主的所有权被剥夺了,主要的生产资料转移到了人民的手中。我国社会主义工业化的道路开启了。土地改革将土地交给了耕种它的人们。农业集体化使得农村走上了社会主义道路。 B |+tK  
Social ownership over the means of production and the single system of socialist economy, which prevails in town and countryside, replaced the private ownership and the multi-form economy. The exploiting classes and the exploitation of man by man were liquidated. The entire social development proceeds consciously, according to plan, and in the interest of the people. > VWH bo  
盛行于城镇和农村的生产资料公有制和单一的社会主义经济制度,代替了私有制和多元体制的经济。剥削阶级和人剥削人的现象被消灭了。根据计划,在人民的意志之下,全社会的发展有序地进行着。 !t 92_y3  
In socialist Albania, the working class is the leading class of the state and the society. New relations of mutual assistance and cooperation have been established between the two friendly classes of our society, the working class and the cooperativist peasantry, as well as the stratum of the people's intelligentsia. The work readily contributed by free people has become the decisive factor in the flourishing of the socialist homeland, in raising the general and individual wellbeing. Albania has overcome its age-old backwardness and has been transformed into a country with advanced industry and agriculture. /4n:!6rt  
在社会主义阿尔巴尼亚,工人阶级是国家和社会的领导阶级。新兴的相互帮助、相互合作的关系在工人阶级同农民、人民知识分子两大友好阶级之间建立起来了。在社会和个人福利的保障下,自由的人民所乐于献身其中的事业成为了社会主义祖国繁荣昌盛的决定性因素。阿尔巴尼亚已经战胜了它积久的落后,并且转型成为了一个具有发达的工业和农业的国家。 (~FLG I  
The vital forces of the people were freed and their inexhaustible creative energies burst out. In the unceasing process of the revolution the Albanian woman won equality in all fields, became a great social force, and is advancing towards her complete emancipation. Education and culture have become the property of the broad masses of the people, and science and knowledge have been placed at the service of society. The foundations of religious obscurantism were smashed. The moral figure of the working man, his consciousness, and world outlook, are moulded on the basis of the proletarian ideology, which has become the dominant ideology. =1Mh %/y  
源自人民的勃勃生机是不受拘束的,他们无穷无尽的创造力爆发了出来。在不断革命的进程中,阿尔巴尼亚妇女在各个领域赢得了平等。教育和文化成为了广大人民群众的财富,科学和知识也被用于服务社会。宗教蒙昧主义的基础已经被砸碎。劳动者的道德被认为是,他的意识和世界观构建于作为主导思想的无产阶级意识的基础之上。 )51H\o  
Socialism has shown its absolute superiority over the old exploiting order. ^~%z Plv  
社会主义已经展现出相对于旧有的剥削制度的绝对优越性。 t'0dyQ%u  
Albania has entered the stage of the complete construction of socialist society. The great historic changes have created new conditions for the continuous development of the revolution and socialist construction. kGSB6  
阿尔巴尼亚正式迈入了社会主义社会时代。伟大的历史变革为持续不断的革命和社会主义建设创造了条件。 <e&*Tx<8  
The waging of the class struggle in favour of socialism, the continuous strengthening of the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the deepening of socialist democracy, the development of the productive forces and the perfecting of socialist relations of production, the steady raising of the wellbeing of the working masses, the gradual narrowing of distinctions between industry and agriculture, town and country, mental and physical labour, the affirmation of the personality of man within the socialist collectivity, the mastering of contemporary technology and science, the continuous revolutionization of the entire life of the country, are the main ways through which the socialist society is growing stronger and advancing. c 0%%X!!$  
社会主义阶级斗争的发动,无产阶级专政的不断加强和社会主义民主的深化,生产力的进步和社会主义生产关系的改善,劳动群众福利的稳步提升,工农差别、城乡差别和脑体差别的逐渐缩小,对于个人融入社会主义集体的肯定,对当代技术和科学的掌握,整个国家生活的持续变革,都是社会主义社会成长壮大和不断进步的必由之路。 D>Qc/+  
The Albanian people are determined to defend their national independence, the people's state power and their socialist victories against any enemy. Socialist Albania is always an active factor in the struggle for national and social liberation, for peace, freedom, and the rights of all the peoples against imperialism, reaction, and revisionism. In its foreign policy it is guided by the great ideals of socialism and communism, and fights for their triumph the world over. V+kU^mI  
阿尔巴尼亚人民坚决地同一切敌人作斗争,保卫民族的独立、人民的国家权力和社会主义的胜利。社会主义阿尔巴尼亚在为了民族和社会解放的斗争中,为了和平和自由的斗争中,以及为了争取那些反对帝国主义、反动势力和修正主义的所有人民的权利的斗争中,扮演着积极的角色。指导阿尔巴尼亚外交政策的理念是社会主义和共产主义,阿尔巴尼亚将为了全世界共产主义的胜利而奋斗。 ]}&f<X  
The Albanian people have found constant inspiration in the great doctrine of Marxism-Leninism, under the banner of which, united round the Party of Labour and under its leadership, they are carrying forward the construction of socialist society to pass over, later, gradually to communist society. s) vHLf4T  
阿尔巴尼亚人民已经在马克思列宁主义的学说中找到了矢志不渝的志向,在它的旗帜下,阿尔巴尼亚人民团结在劳动党周围,并在其领导下不断推进社会主义社会建设,最终逐步走向共产主义社会。 a jCx"J  
________________________________________ LGm>x  
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PART ONE 'B>%5'SdD  
第一编 Ge>%?\  
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CHAPTER I 9s-op:5  
第一章 N'nqVYTU  
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THE SOCIAL ORDER ec4jiE  
社会制度  GP5Y5 )  
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A. THE POLITICAL ORDER i~dW)7  
第一节 政治制度 b g'B^E3  
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Article 1 {P_~_5o_  
第一条 kN4nRW9z  
Albania is a People's Socialist Republic. xP.B,1\X  
阿尔巴尼亚是社会主义人民共和国。 VJX{2$L  
3:i4DBp,i  
Article 2 \guZc}V]:\  
第二条 dUtxG ~9  
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people. K2TO,J3 E  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国是无产阶级专政的国家,它表达和捍卫所有劳动人民的意志。 x-0IxWD%  
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is based on the unity of the people round the Party of Labour of Albania and it has as its foundation the alliance of the working class with the cooperativist peasantry under the leadership of the working class. {_1^ GIIS  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国以团结在阿尔巴尼亚劳动党周围的人民为基础,建立在以工人阶级为领导的,工农联盟的基础之上。 ~(tZW  
"-y\F}TE  
Article 3 S<f&?\wK=v  
第三条 p;:tzH\l  
The Party of Labour of Albania, the vanguard of the working class, is the sole leading political force of the state and the society. h'<}N  
作为工人阶级先锋队的阿尔巴尼亚劳动党,是国家和社会的唯一政治领导力量。 Hw5\~!FX  
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania the dominant ideology is Marxism-Leninism. The entire socialist social order is developed on the basis of its principles. kx 'ncxN~  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的主导思想是马克思列宁主义。整个社会主义社会的制度都建立在这一思想的原则之上。 *$x/(!UE  
5n r}5bum  
Article 4 ^ 3LM %B  
第四条 YWeEvo(,=  
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania unceasingly develops the revolution by adhering to the class struggle and aims at ensuring the final victory of the socialist road over the capitalist road, at achieving the complete construction of socialism and communism. g/so3F%v .  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国始终通过阶级斗争来发展革命事业,通过完成全面的社会主义和共产主义建设,追求社会主义道路超越资本主义道路的最终胜利。 Q;{yIa$ $  
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Article 5 qt}vM*0}V  
第五条 .9> e r  
All state power in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania derives from and belongs to the working people. :7IL|bA<  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的一切国家权力源于并且属于劳动人民。 V;?_l?_  
The working class, the cooperativist peasantry and the other working people, exercise their state power through the representative organs as well as directly. (o{-1Dg)  
工人阶级、农民阶级以及其他的劳动人民,通过代表机关直接行使国家权力。 rx'},[b]3  
The representative organs are the People's Assembly and the people's councils. Z?[;J apg  
代表机关为人民议会和人民委员会。 dW<.  
No one else apart from the organs expressly defined in this Constitution, can exercise the sovereignty of the people and any of its attributes in the name of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. q^Lj)zmnK  
除了本宪法所明确规定的机关,没有任何主体能够行使人民的主权或者使用阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的名义。 N{iBVl  
 *D F5sY  
Article 6 _x z_D12  
第六条 hT^6Ifm  
The representative organs direct and control the activity of all the other state organs, which are responsible to them and render account to them. >Fz_] z   
代表机关指导和管理其他所有国家机关,其他国家机关对代表机关负责、向代表机关报告工作。 KwWqsuju  
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Article 7 5bv(J  T  
第七条 J7emoD [  
In all their work, the representative organs and other state organs rely on the creative initiative of the masses of the working people, draw them into running the country, and render account before them. w48T?  
在所有工作中,代表机关和其他国家机关应依靠广大劳动人民的主动性和积极性,吸收他们来管理国家,在他们面前报告工作。 \ Yz>=rY  
l+ bP48  
Article 8 J^pL_  
第八条 HV&N(;@  
The representative organs are elected by the people through universal suffrage with equal, direct and secret voting. B!! xu  
代表机关由人民通过平等的、直接的、秘密的投票广泛地选举产生。 U{h5uezD  
The electors have the right to recall their representative at any time when he has lost their political trust, when he does not fulfil the tasks he is charged with, or when he acts in contravention of the laws. kE,~NG9P  
当代表失去政治上的信任、不履行受委托的职责或者触犯了法律时,选民有权利随时罢免之。 nmc=RK^cM  
The organization and procedure in holding elections are regulated by law. rgB`< [:b  
举办选举的机构和程序由法律规定。 ai`fP{WlX  
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Article 9 D^04b< O<x  
第九条 G#N h)ff  
Officials serve the people and render account before them, participate directly in work in production, and are paid salaries in fair ratio with those of the workers and cooperativists, with the aim of preventing the creation of a privileged stratum. The pay ratio is set by law. 6fY(u7m|p  
公务员应当为人民服务,在人民面前报告工作,直接参加生产劳动,并且获得同工人、农民的收入呈公平比例的报酬,以期防止特权阶层的产生。报酬比例由法律规定。 r=s ,Ath  
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Article 10 _|wgw^.LJ]  
第十条 ^EjZ.#2l;  
Under the leadership of the Party of Labour of Albania, the working class, as the leading class of the society, the cooperativist peasantry, as well as the other working people, exercise direct and organized control over the activity of state organs, economic and social organizations and their workers, for the purpose of defending the victories of the revolution and strengthening the socialist order. Z%N{Y x(  
为了保卫革命的胜利,巩固社会主义制度,作为领导阶级的工人阶级,同农民阶级和其他劳动人民,在阿尔巴尼亚劳动党的领导下,有组织地管理着国家机关、经济社会团体以及劳动者的活动。 C "<l}  
O=MO M  
Article 11 X{9D fgW  
第十一条 Zu_m $Mx  
The organization of the state and state activity, all the political and economic life in the- People's Socialist Republic of Albania are based on the principle of democratic centralism and develop according to it, combining the centralized direction with the creative initiative of local organs and the masses of the working people, in struggle against bureaucracy and liberalism. -G(z!ed  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的国家组织运作和所有的政治经济生活,建立在民主集中制原则的基础之上,并依据这一原则不断发展,将中央的指导和地方机关与广大劳动人民的主动性和积极性结合起来,同官僚主义和自由主义作斗争。 z62e4U][  
l-XiQ#-{  
Article 12 6;l{9cRgc  
第十二条 Um4 }`  
The precise and equal implementation of the Constitution and laws, which express the will of the working class and the other masses of the working people is obligatory in all the activity of the state organs, economic and social organizations and officials. Gz+Bk5#{  
根据工人阶级和其他广大劳动人民的意志,国家机关、经济社会团体和公务员的活动,必须准确、平等地贯彻实施宪法和法律。 { e<J} -/?  
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Article 13 XGFU *g`kq  
第十三条 tU}CRh  
The state relies on the social organizations, cooperates with them, and creates conditions for the development of their activity. /wljb b/s  
国家依靠社会团体,同它们合作,并为它们的发展创造条件。 mSY;hJi  
The social organizations unite the masses and broad strata of the people, draw them, in an organized way, into the running of the country, the socialist construction and the defence of the country, work for their communist education and take care of the solution of their individual problems. ES;7_ .q  
社会团体联合广大人民群众,吸收并组织他们管理国家、参与社会主义建设、保卫祖国、为共产主义教育而工作,并解决他们的个人困难。 o`+6E q0w  
{<\nl#}5S  
Article 14 0F1 a  
第十四条 2wlrei  
In the construction of socialism, the People's Socialist Republic of Albania relies mainly on its own forces. zQ(li9  
在社会主义建设中,阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国坚持独立自主。 E=Ah_zKU  
Ih;6(5z  
Article 15 eZ[CqUJ&  
第十五条 jJQ6]ucwa  
In foreign relations the People's Socialist Republic of Albania proceeds from the principles of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism, follows the policy of friendship, collaboration, and mutual assistance with the socialist states, supports the revolutionary movement of the working class and the struggle of the peoples for freedom, independence, social progress and socialism and relies on their solidarity. U?[a@Hj{  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的对外关系立足于马克思列宁主义和无产阶级国际主义的原则,遵循对社会主义国家的友好、合作、互助的外交政策,团结工人阶级和各民族,支持他们的革命运动和追求自由、独立、进步和社会主义的运动。 C;0H _  
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is for peace and good neighbourliness, for relations with all states on the basis of equality, respect for sovereignty, non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit. ^+F@KXn L  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国追求和平和睦邻友好,追求同所有国家间互相尊重主权、互不干涉内政、平等互利的外交关系。 S:v]3G  
The People's Socialist Republic of Albania opposes any form of aggression, colonial exploitation, tutelage, dictate and hegemony, national oppression and racial discrimination. It upholds the principle of self-determination of the peoples, the exercise of full national sovereignty and equality of all countries in international relations. Pz,kSxe=  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国反对一切形式的侵略、殖民掠夺、霸权主义、民族压迫和种族歧视,支持民族自决原则,维护国际关系间所有国家的平等和主权完整。 /+1+6MqRn*  
________________________________________ zy(sekX;  
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B. THE ECONOMIC ORDER Gw:8-bxS  
第二节 经济制度 {CG%$rh  
G%Hr c  
Article 16 eGHxiC  
第十六条 f> k]{W Y  
The economy of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a socialist economy which is based on the socialist ownership of the means of production. \rn:/  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的经济是建立在生产资料社会主义公有制基础上的社会主义经济。 -|\V'  
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania there are no exploiting classes, private property and the exploitation of man by man have been liquidated and are forbidden. jAB~XaT,  
在阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国中不存在剥削阶级,私有财产和人剥削人的现象已经被消灭并且被禁止。 ]R32dI8N  
$ jWe!]ASU  
Article 17 sMlY!3{I x  
第十七条 eU&[^  
The socialist property is the inviolable basis of the socialist order, the source of the wellbeing of the people and of the might of the homeland; it has special protection from the state. .K]n<+zW  
以社会主义制度、人民福利资源和国家权力为基础的公有财产不可侵犯,它受到国家的特别保护。 rz+)z:u  
Socialist property is comprised of the state property and the cooperativist property in agriculture. wa-#C,R\_#  
公有财产包括国有财产和农业集体财产。 ghq[oK  
pyhC%EZU  
Article 18 s_S[iW`l=  
第十八条 = &jLwy  
State property belongs to the whole people and is the highest form of socialist property. T}d% XMXq  
国有财产属于全体人民,是公有财产的最高形式。 !LB#K?I  
The following are property of the state alone: the land and underground riches, the mines, forests, pastures, waters, natural energy resources, the plants, factories, machine and tractor stations, the banks, the roads of communication and means of rail, water, and air transport, post, telegraph, telephone offices, radio and TV stations, cinematography. A.vWGBR  
下列财产属国家专有:土地与地下资源,矿藏,森林,牧场,水资源,天然能源,植物,工厂,交通工具和车站,银行,公路和铁路、航运、空运,邮政,电报,电话,广播和电视,电影。 _Cn[|E  
Any other wealth which is created in the state sector or which the state gains according to law, is also state property. FC[8kq>Hk  
产生于国有领域或国家依法获得的其他财富,同样属国有财产。 1ml>  
(Qq;ySZ#  
Article 19 3}*)EC  
第十九条 t)o!OEnE  
Land is granted for social use to the economic enterprises and state institutions, to the agricultural cooperatives and social organizations, and for the personal use of individual citizens. Land is granted for use free of charge. :'p+Ql~c  
土地应当由经济企业、公共社团、农业合作社、社会团体和公民个人来使用。土地的使用应当免费。 6+`+$s0  
Agricultural land may be used for other purposes only with the consent of the respective state organs. 7bJAO J'_  
农业用地只有在国家代表机关的批准之下,方能被用于其他目的。 1 ? be  
#fdQ\)#q>  
Article 20 bit@Kv1<C  
第二十条 #$k6OlK-r"  
Protection of the land, natural riches, waters and the atmosphere from damage and pollution is a duty of the state, of the economic and social organizations, and of all citizens. fP 4  
国家、经济社会团体和全体公民有责任保护土地、自然资源、水资源和空气资源免受污染。 6[wAX  
ROH 2KSt  
Article 21 cvSr><(  
第二十一条 -hv<8bC~4  
Cooperativist property belongs to the group of working people of the countryside, voluntarily united in the agricultural cooperative for the purpose of increasing production and wellbeing, for the construction of socialism in the countryside and throughout the country. '1rHvz`B/"  
集体财产属于在农业集体化中为促进生产和福利、促进农村社会主义建设而自发形成的农村劳动人民团体。 Qmbl_#  
The following are property of the agricultural cooperative: buildings, machines, equipment, means of transport, tools and implements, livestock for work or production, fruit trees, agricultural and livestock products, as well as other means necessary for its activity. lHl1Ny\?  
下列财产属于农业集体财产:建筑,交通工具,设备,生产资料,劳动工具,牲畜,果树,农业和畜牧业产品,以及其他必要的劳动资料。 aG&ay3[&  
tUzef  
Article 22 v>ygr8+C,  
第二十二条 PO1|l-v<Yq  
The state supports, the development and strengthening of the agricultural cooperatives, their transformation into modern economies of large-scale socialist production. w&U>w@H^  
国家支持农业集体化的巩固和发展,支持社会主义现代化大规模生产的改革。 'UW]~  
Under certain circumstances, the state supports the setting up and development of higher type cooperatives, in which it participates directly with investments, especially in the main means of production. JIJ79HB  
在特定情况下,国家支持更高级的合作形式的发展,支持其直接参与投资,特别是对主要生产资料的投资。 #}y(D{zc  
The transition of the cooperativist property into property of the entire people is done in conformity with the objective conditions, according to the free will of the cooperativists and with the consent of the state. uIeD.I'@{5  
从集体所有财产到全民所有财产的过渡应依照客观情况,须根据合作社的自由意志和国家的批准。 :>G3N+A)  
The state works for the narrowing of distinctions between town and country. >o45vB4o  
国家努力缩小城乡差别。 Rq,ST:  
cwK+{*ZH/  
Article 23 L~Hgf/%5  
第二十三条 a d,0*(</  
The personal property of the citizens is recognized and protected by the state. V( /=0H/ F  
国家认可和保护公民的个人财产。 \@%sX24D  
Personal property are: income from work and other lawful sources, dwelling houses and other objects which serve to meet personal and family material and cultural needs. gr&Rkuyfv  
公民的个人财产是指:劳动收入和其他合法所得,住宅和其他用于满足个人和家庭的物质文化需求的财产。  fa=OeuI  
The objects belonging to the cooperativist family on the basis of the Constitution of the agricultural cooperative are also personal property. h_w_OCC&2  
农村家庭根据农业合作社的规定所占有的财产也属于个人财产。 F| ib=_)3  
Personal property cannot be used to the detriment of the social interest. E\ 'X|/$a  
个人财产不得用于损害社会利益。 jT6zpi~]E  
W;^bc*a_  
Article 24 G iF})e}  
第二十四条 r]0UF0#  
When the general interest requires it, certain fixed assets of the cooperativist and personal property may be converted into state property. The criteria of conversion and the method of payment are fixed by law. @Z50S 8  
根据公共利益的需要,某些集体所有和个人所有的固定财产可以被征收为国有财产。征收的标准和补偿的方式由法律规定。 0xNlO9b/  
Ob|[/NN  
Article 25 %s#`i$|z*n  
第二十五条 SdI/  
The state organizes, manages, and develops all the economic and social life by a unified general plan in order to fulfil the ever increasing material and cultural needs of the society, to strengthen the independence of the country and defence by constantly increasing and perfecting socialist production on the basis of advanced technology. f%1Dn}6  
国家组织、管理和发展所有的经济社会生活,以期通过不断加强和完善以先进技术为基础的社会主义生产,满足社会的物质文化需求,巩固国防的独立自主。 uy,ySBY  
o4Bl!7U  
Article 26 <_|H]^ o  
第二十六条 4cO||OsMU  
For the administration of means which are property of the whole people, the state creates economic enterprises which carry on their activity guided by the general interests of the society which is expressed in the state plan. vGk} r  
为了管理经营全民所有的财产,国家设立经济企业。经济企业的活动应当依照国家计划的规定,符合社会公共利益。 P'nbyF  
The method of the creation of enterprises and the principles of their activity are fixed by law. M?UlC   
企业的设立方式和活动原则由法律规定。 (5"BKu1t  
L-ZJ[#D  
Article 27 l7]$Wc[  
第二十七条 P7Th 94  
Foreign trade is a monopoly of the state. N".-]bB  
对外贸易由国家垄断。 .2xp.i{  
Domestic trade is mainly carried out by the state, which has every activity in this field under its control. \bh3&Z'.  
国内贸易主要由国家实施,在这些领域内国家控制一切活动。 Cf_Ik  
The selling prices of the products of the enterprises as well as the prices for state purchase of agricultural and livestock products are fixed by the state. ZOFBT(oV  
企业产品的销售价格和国家对农牧业产品的收购价格由国家规定。 N_vVEIO9  
Kis\Rg  
Article 28 tVhY=X{N?  
第二十八条 YkcX#>,  
The granting of concessions to, and the creation of, foreign economic and financial companies and other institutions or ones formed jointly with bourgeois and revisionist capitalist monopolies and states, as well as obtaining credits from them, are prohibited in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. -(n[^48K  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国不承认并禁止设立外国的经济公司、金融公司、其他公共社团以及由资产阶级和修正主义资本主义垄断组织和国家所建立的机构,同时禁止从彼处获得贷款。 ?= <vC  
ou44vKzS  
Article 29 Ng Kbf vt  
第二十九条 SnbH`\U"  
Work is the foundation of the entire economic-social life of the country. Work is the main source from which every citizen ensures the means of livelihood. qYFol# =%  
劳动是整个国家经济社会生活的基础。劳动是每个公民获得生活资料的主要来源。 g<s[6yA  
The state works to narrow the differences between mental and physical labour, between work in industry and work in agriculture. ]xfAdBi  
国家努力缩小脑体差别、工农差别。 laM0W5  
The state takes care of, and adopts measures for safety at work and the qualification of the working people. SVp]} !jI  
国家关注并采取措施保障工作安全与工作条件。 G'( %8\  
,_T,B'a:  
Article 30 (Jf i 3 m  
第三十条 FTt7o'U  
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania the socialist principle »from each according to his ability, to each according to his work« is implemented. h*hV  
在阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国,贯彻“各尽所能”的社会主义原则。 \%NhggS*  
Equal pay is guaranteed for equal work. uL b- NxQ-  
报酬平等是劳动平等的保障。 `QR2!W70o3  
To encourage work for the maximum results, the use of material stimuli is combined correctly with moral stimuli, giving priority to moral stimuli. The fund of social consumption for the fulfilment of the common needs of citizens is increased continually in accordance with the possibilities created by the development of the country's economy. @hm %0L  
对于劳动最大化的倡导,应正确结合物质鼓励和精神鼓励,并以精神鼓励为主。公民公共需求所产生的社会消费,应根据国家经济发展的状况不断增长。 }se)=7d8 Z  
The state exercises control over the amount of work and consumption. j:|60hDz^  
国家控制劳动量和消费量。 q4 'x'8  
8N6a=[fv<  
Article 31 B>o\;)l3O  
第三十一条 9Pd~  
The citizens pay no levies or taxes whatsoever. .,,?[TI  
任何情况下公民无须纳税。 da!N0\.1T  
________________________________________ 5G){7]P+r"  
VR_+/,~  
2O9dU 5b  
C. EDUCATION, SCIENCE, CULTURE ~A 8lvuw3  
第三节 教育,科学和文化 z}C#+VhQ`  
#Opfc8pm'  
Article 32 =]xNpX)  
第三十二条 4 PD"[a="  
The state carries out extensive ideological and cultural activity for the communist education of the working people, for the moulding of the new man. 6{azzk8  
国家落实对劳动人民思想文化的共产主义教育,为新人树立榜样。 YhLtf(r  
The state takes special care of the allround development and education of the younger generation in the spirit of .socialism and communism. D{'Na5(  
国家关注青年人在社会主义和共产主义精神方面的发展和教育。 pJa FPO..|  
`y YgL@Zt  
Article 33 a2=wJhk  
第三十三条 :1Fm~'  
Education in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is organized and run by the state, is open to all and free of charge; it is built on the basis of the Marxist-Leninist world outlook and combines lessons with productive work and physical and military training. i'e^[ oZ  
在阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国,教育由国家组织和施行,并向所有人免费开放。教育建立在马克思列宁主义的世界观之上,结合课堂学习、生产劳动、体育锻炼和军事训练。 0M8JE9 Kx  
Education follows the best traditions of the Albanian national secular school. wmo'Pl  
教育应遵照阿尔巴尼亚国立世俗学校的最优惯例。 qZ\zsOnp  
RX2= iO"  
Article 34 34;c00  
第三十四条 BLaX p0  
The state organizes and directs the development of science and technology in close connection with life and production in the service of the progress of society and defence of the homeland. 3:Z(tM&-O  
国家组织和指导同生产生活有密切联系的、服务于社会进步和国防建设的科学技术的发展。 }( o/+H4  
The state supports the dissemination of scientific knowledge among the masses and drawing them extensively into scientific research activity. ]LSa(7>EU  
国家支持科学知识在群众中的传播,并吸收他们参加科学实验活动。 W^=89I4]  
<q[ *kr  
Article 35 3&y u  
第三十五条 cF(9[8c{  
The state protects the cultural heritage of the people and cares for the allround development of the socialist national culture. <BU|?T6~  
国家保护人民的文化遗产,并关注社会主义国家文化的发展。 \pzvoj7{  
The state supports the development of the literature and art of socialist realism, which uphold the ideals of socialism and communism and are permeated by the national and people's spirit. q yJpm{  
国家支持具有社会主义和共产主义理念并传播民族精神和人民意志的文学艺术作品的发展。 w5*18L=O\  
_b5iR<f  
Article 36 &pba~X.u  
第三十六条 kcOpO<oE  
The state works for the development of physical culture and sports on the basis of the mass movement for the strengthening of the health of the people, especially of the younger generation, for tempering them for work and defence. ffB]4  
国家努力促进体育事业的发展。体育事业以群众的体育运动为基础,增强人民的体质,特别是青年人的体质,以保障他们参加工作和国防。 ?Jr<gn^D  
;< ][upn  
Article 37 -[`W m7en  
第三十七条 cq=R  
The state recognizes no religion whatever and supports atheist propaganda for the purpose of inculcating the scientific materialist world outlook in people. $U0(%lIU  
国家不承认任何宗教,并且支持无神论的宣传,支持向人民倡导科学的唯物主义世界观。 W ,U'hk%  
________________________________________ }GC{~ SZ4  
0jzA\$oD  
2?ednMoE  
CHAPTER II xD#/@E1'Y  
第二章 -)Vj08aP  
37[C^R!1c  
THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS V& nN/CF  
公民的基本权利与义务 ;'Q{ ywr  
<>:kAT,sP  
Article 38 *o#`lH  
第三十八条 3OZ}&[3  
Citizens of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania are those who have Albanian citizenship according to the law. `2oi~^.  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的公民是指依法拥有阿尔巴尼亚国籍的人。 "<(~  
{8MF !CG]  
Article 39 re!CF8 q  
第三十九条 k$>T(smh  
The rights and duties of citizens are built on the basis of the reconciliation of the interests of the individual and the socialist society, giving priority to the general interest. o (zg_!P  
公民的权利义务建立在协调个人利益与社会主义公共利益的基础之上,并以公共利益优先。 )/JC.d#  
The rights of the citizens are inseparable from the fulfilment of their duties and cannot be exercised in opposition to the socialist order. +x2xQ8#|~~  
公民的权利与其义务的履行不可分割。禁止公民因行使权利而反对社会制度。 >']H)c'2  
The further extension and deepening of the rights of citizens are closely linked with the socialist development of the country. T,fz/5w  
公民权利的扩张和深化应同社会主义祖国的发展紧密联系。 ;gyE5n-{  
iiTUhO )  
Article 40 8\9EDgT  
第四十条 P33E\O  
All citizens are equal before the law. {V8Pn2mlo  
公民在法律面前一律平等。 i@* ^]'  
No restriction or privilege is recognized on the rights and duties of citizens on account of sex, race, nationality, education, social position or material situation. f- <6T  
公民的权利义务不因其性别、种族、民族、教育程度、社会地位和财产状况的差异而产生限制或特权。 K?4(ou  
+*V; f,  
Article 41 bv/b<N@4?$  
第四十一条 IoA;q)  
The woman, liberated from political oppression and economic exploitation, as a great force of the revolution, takes an active part in the socialist construction of the country and the defence of the homeland. '}u31V"SS  
已经从政治压迫和经济剥削中解放出来的妇女,是革命的伟大力量,并在社会主义建设和国防中发挥积极作用。 iIFQRnpu;3  
The woman enjoys equal rights with man in work, pay, holidays, social security, education, in all social-political activity, as well as in the family. +mQSlEo  
妇女在劳动、报酬、假日、社会保障、教育、所有的社会政治活动和家庭方面享有同男子平等的权利。 o1Ln7r.  
^|C|=q~:  
Article 42 T8-$[ 2  
第四十二条 j,XKu5w)Oi  
Protection and development of their people's culture and traditions, the use of their mother tongue and teaching of it in school, equal development in all fields of social life are guaranteed for national minorities. e`r;`a&  
少数民族享有保护和发展本民族文化和传统、使用并在学校教授本民族语言的权利,并在社会生活的各个方面享有平等发展的权利。 @nu/0+8h{  
Any national privilege and inequality and any act which violates the rights of national minorities is contrary to the Constitution and is punishable by law. 16|S 0 )  
任何的民族特权与不平等、任何侵犯少数民族权利的行为,都同宪法相违背、由法律所惩罚。 UD{/L"GG  
aB^G  
Article 43 fXe-U='  
第四十三条 F/sBr7I  
Citizens who reach the age of 18 years have the right to elect and to be elected to all the organs of state power. &J$5+"/; X  
年满十八周岁的公民都享有各级国家权力机关的选举权和被选举权。 4&e@>  
The only persons excluded from electoral rights are those deprived of them by decision of the court and those who are mentally incompetent and declared as such by the court. dH|^\IQ  
只有被法院判决剥夺选举的权利和被法院宣告为精神上无能力的人不享有选举的权利。 : !3y>bP)  
8F`  
Article 44 vv/,Rgv  
第四十四条 "Q{~Bj~  
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania citizens have the right to work, which is guaranteed by the state. ]0 RXo3  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的公民有劳动的权利,劳动的权利受国家保护。 % VpBB  
Work is a duty and honour for every able-bodied citizen. k&iDJt  
劳动是每一位身体健全的公民的光荣义务。 pm~;:#z7  
Citizens have the right to choose and exercise their profession according to their capacity and personal inclination, and in accordance with the needs of the society. mo[<4U ks  
公民有权利根据个人的能力和兴趣、根据社会的需要,选择和从事职业。 '-33iG  
siYRRr  
Article 45 Wx$q: $h@q  
第四十五条 2 pa3}6P+  
Citizens enjoy the right of rest after work. The working day and working week and the paid annual holiday are regulated by law. PMhhPw]  
公民享有劳动后的休息权利。工作时间与休假制度由法律规定。 D"4&9"CU  
Rest homes, houses of culture, and other centres of this kind are created for and are put in service of, the working people. bDBO+qA  
疗养院、文化宫以及其他此类的中心,应被设立并服务于劳动人民。 -MU.Hu  
\K~fRUo]=c  
Article 46 U!? gdX  
第四十六条 .# 55u+d,  
Citizens of town and country are guaranteed the necessary material means of livelihood in old age, in case of illness or loss of ability to work. [ []SkLZHg  
城乡公民在年老的情况下,应当获得必要的物质帮助,以防止疾病或丧失劳动力带来的不便。 t Q/ #t<4D  
The state takes under special care the invalids of the National Liberation War, of the struggle in defence of the homeland and invalids from work, and creates the conditions for their rehabilitation. {lTxB'W@d  
国家照顾在民族解放战争中为保卫祖国而造成残疾的人以及在劳动中造成残疾的人,并创造条件使他们正常生活。 }?]yxa~  
The young children of those fallen in defence of the country and in the socialist construction are under the care of the state. k\sM;bCv7  
保卫祖国和社会主义建设中牺牲者的年幼子女由国家照顾。 RF~Ofi  
q7f;ZK=f  
Article 47 wK'!xH^  
第四十七条 (s$u_aq 77  
The state guarantees to citizens the necessary medical services as well as medical treatment in the health centres of the country, free of charge. EEs-&  
国家保障公民在卫生中心获得必要的免费医疗服务。 guOSO@  
@>fO;*  
Article 48 MuoctW  
第四十八条  /MqXwUbO  
Mother and child enjoy special solicitude and protection. /X^3=-{8  
母亲和儿童享有特殊的关怀和保护。 QGr\I/Y  
A mother is entitled to paid leave prior to and after childbirth. l{6` k<J(  
母亲在分娩前后有权利获得假期。 r%F(?gKXkd  
The state opens maternity homes and creches and kindergartens for the children. i#RElH  
国家为儿童开设育婴房、托儿所和幼儿园。 xY2}Wr j,  
$89ea*k  
Article 49 Wm)-zvNY;  
第四十九条 Z .bit_(  
Marriage and the family are under the care and protection of the state and society. t {Hh&HX  
国家和社会保护婚姻和家庭。 j,=*WG  
Marriage is contracted before competent state organs. AhvvuN$n%  
婚姻的缔结由相应的国家机关管理。 uNe}"hs  
The parents are responsible for the upbringing and communist education of the children. E kBae=  
父母有责任养育子女,并对其进行共产主义教育。 Iz}2 ^  
The children are duty bound to care for parents who are disabled and lack the necessary means of livelihood. [`.3f'")j  
子女有义务赡养残疾的和缺乏必要生活保障的父母。 ovd^,?ib  
Children born out of wedlock have the same rights and duties as children born within marriage. vuR5}/Ev  
非婚生子女享有同婚生子女相同的权利。 731h ~x!u  
The children bereaved of their parents and without support are brought up and educated by the state. h; 'W :P  
失去保障的孤儿由国家抚养和教育。 / R_ u\?k(  
H]_WFiW-9  
Article 50 k42b:W5%  
第五十条 `'p`PyMt`  
Citizens enjoy the right to personal property. zmf"I[)  
公民对个人财产享有权利。 Hp\Ddx >Jd  
The right of inheritance is regulated by law. cMDRWh  
继承的权利由法律规定。 @Ex;9F,Q  
\F 3C=M@:  
Article 51 QXdaMc+Ck  
第五十一条 \Yj#2ww  
The state guarantees the freedom of scientific work and literary and artistic creativeness. :T_'n,  
国家保障科学工作和文学艺术创作的自由。 3->,So0Y  
Author's rights are protected by law. Yeqvv  
著作权受法律保护。 oW^k7 #<e}  
)ZH c$+fU  
Article 52 E;6~R M:  
第五十二条 9C_*3?6  
Citizens have the right to education. I*Vt,JYx  
公民有受教育的权利。  ]n UR;8  
Eight-grade education is universal and compulsory. The state aims at raising the level of compulsory education for everybody. A2y6UzLYD  
八年制教育应普遍地强制实施。国家以提高所有人的教育水平为目标。 )s7bJjT0=X  
ejVdxVr\7  
Article 53 OB~C}'^$  
第五十三条 \yNQQ$B  
Citizens enjoy the freedom of speech, the press, organization, association, assembly and public manifestation. !\^jt%e&  
公民享有言论、出版、组团结社、集会、公开示威的自由。 BDy5J2<<7l  
The state guarantees the realization of these freedoms, it creates the conditions for them, and makes available the necessary material means. RlrZxmPV>O  
国家保障这些自由的实施,为之创造条件并提供必要的物质保障。 MM#i t=u  
8lwFAiC8  
Article 54 r} Lb3`'  
第五十四条 # :#M{1I  
The right to join various organizations which operate in the political, economic, cultural as well as in any other field of the country's life, is guaranteed to the citizens. (? \?it-  
公民享有参加各类政治、经济、文化以及其他有关国家生活的组织的权利。 n#BvW,6J  
(S|a 9#  
Article 55  `?|Rc  
第五十五条 $2KK:{VX  
The creation of any type of organization of a fascist, anti-democratic, religious, and anti-socialist character is prohibited. XA)'=L!^  
禁止设立任何法西斯、反民主、宗教和反社会主义性质的组织。 O2.' -  
Fascist, anti-democratic, religious, war-mongering, and anti-socialist activities and propaganda, as well as the incitement of national and racial hatred are prohibited. #{$1z;i?f  
禁止法西斯、反民主、宗教、鼓吹战争和反社会主义的煽动、宣传与活动,禁止民族仇恨。 r?p[3JJ;mG  
]tB@kBi "  
Article 56 t<638`{kk  
第五十六条 s\gp5MT  
The state guarantees the inviolability of the person. :"QfF@Z{  
国家保障公民不受侵犯。 bb;(gK;F  
Nobody can be arrested without the decision of the court or the approval of the prosecutor. In special cases envisaged in the law the competent organs can detain a person for a maximum of 3 days. p|3b/plZ  
非经法院的决定或检察官的批准,任何人不得被逮捕。在法定的特殊情况下,相应的国家机关可以拘留一个人最多三日。 2.-o@im0  
Nobody can be sentenced penally without the verdict of the court or for an act which is not envisaged by the law as a crime. #y 1Bx,  
非经法院判决、非其行为在法律上被规定为犯罪,任何人不得被宣判为有罪。 Fi2xr<7"  
Nobody can be sentenced without being present at court apart from when it has been legally proved that he is missing. Nxk(mec"  
任何人不得被缺席判决,但依照法律规定证明其确已失踪的除外。 pu9^e4B9  
Nobody can be interned or expelled except in special cases envisaged by the law. V.6)0fKZW  
任何人不得被羁押或驱逐,但法律特别规定的除外。 Gb2L }  
m#e*c [*G  
Article 57 \X|sU:g  
第五十七条 8(f:U@BS  
The home is inviolable. No one is permitted to enter another person's home without the approval of the respective person, apart from representatives of the competent state organs and under the conditions defined by law. ]$A(9Pn"  
住宅不受侵犯。除非获得主人同意,任何人不得进入他人的住宅,但有关国家机关的工作人员依照法定情形的除外。 3qaMO#{M  
mchJmZ{A  
Article 58 0uvzxmN  
第五十八条 ,.tfWN%t\  
The secrecy of correspondence and other means of communication cannot be violated, except in the cases of the investigation of a crime, a state of emergency, or of war. DM{ 4@*]  
通信自由不受侵犯,但侦查犯罪、全国紧急状态和战争时期除外。 Y?K{(szo ?  
ZnW@YC#9   
Article 59 -e*ZCwQ  
第五十九条 5/MKzoB  
Citizens enjoy the right to make requests, complaints, remarks and proposals to the competent organs over personal, social, and state affairs. k@dN$O%p  
公民对国家机关有关个人、社会和国家的事务,有提出请求、申诉、评论和建议的权利。 x=q;O+7]  
According to the conditions defined by law, citizens have the right to demand compensation from the state or its officials for the damage caused by the illegal activities of the state organs and its employees in the exercise of their duty. ?6^|ZtB  
依照法定情形,由于国家机关的违法行为或其工作人员的职务行为造成损害的,公民有权向国家或公务员提出赔偿要求。 pkgjTXR2b  
p-GAe,2q  
Article 60 K/=|8+IDL  
第六十条 Pe;Y1Qq>>  
The citizens are obliged to respect and implement the Constitution and other laws. IZ/ m4~  
公民有义务尊重和贯彻实施宪法和其他法律。 O@V%Cu  
The preservation and strengthening of the socialist order and the implementation of the rules of socialist co-existence are a duty for all the citizens. Dd/wUP  
维持与巩固社会主义制度,贯彻实施现行的社会主义规范,是每个公民的义务。 t. ='/`!N  
Gh.[dF?  
Article 61 TS2ZF{m  
第六十一条 (xHf 4[[u  
Citizens have the duty to protect and strengthen socialist property. ~Wo)?q8UY,  
公民有义务保护和巩固公有财产。 #X 52/8G  
Violation of socialist property constitutes a grave crime. ,'xYlH3s  
对公有财产的侵犯构成严重的犯罪。 y){ k3lm0  
*t[. =_v  
Article 62 FCi U  
第六十二条 jB{4\)   
The defence of the socialist Homeland is the supreme duty and the greatest honour for all citizens. m< _S_c  
保卫社会主义祖国是每个公民的最高义务与伟大荣誉。 if|+EN%  
Betrayal of the Homeland is the most serious crime. u/cg|]x&T  
对祖国的背叛是最严重的犯罪。 0U%f)mG  
o(DOQGl  
Article 63 a}%#*J)!  
第六十三条 fF b_J`'ue  
Military service and the constant training for the defence of the socialist Homeland are duties for all the citizens. uwz)($~bp  
服役与持续参加保卫社会主义祖国的军事训练是所有公民的义务。 &boOtl^  
oD<k MK  
Article 64 "@?? Fw!  
第六十四条 N[<\>Ps|u  
Albanian citizens abroad enjoy the care and are under the protection of the state. S30?VG9U0f  
境外的阿尔巴尼亚公民享受国家的关照和保护。 su*'d:L  
anXc|  
Article 65 xlhG,bb7  
第六十五条 WZ.@UN,  
The right of sanctuary in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is granted to foreign citizens who are persecuted on account of their activity in favour of the revolution and socialism, of democracy and national liberation, or the progress of science and culture. DRcNdO/1E  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国对于因支持革命和社会主义、支持民主和民族解放、支持科学文化进步而遭受政治迫害的外国公民,应当给予受庇护的权利。 Ney/[ 3 A  
________________________________________ Y;?{ |  
xai*CY@cQ  
 Vh_P/C+  
PART TWO r"P|dlV-  
第二编 u6AA4(  
________________________________________ '.:z&gSqx0  
vX/T3WV  
`aciXlqIF  
CHAPTER I kM,C3x{A  
第一章 KrQ1GepJ  
&litXIvT>  
THE SUPREME ORGANS OF THE STATE POWER |olA9mp|]  
最高国家权力机关 \W~ N  
'uBu6G  
A. THE PEOPLE'S ASSEMBLY Q+[n91ey**  
第一节 人民议会 ]s<[D$ <,  
JRB9rSN^  
Article 66  y3@H/U{  
第六十六条 ZrpU <   
The People's Assembly is the supreme organ of state power, the bearer of the sovereignty of the people and the state and the sole law-making organ. X% t1 T4  
人民议会是最高国家权力机关,是人民主权的持有者和唯一的立法机关。 `dq,>HdW  
bCRV\myd`  
Article 67 Lt64JH^lz  
第六十七条 zdB^S%cztS  
The People's Assembly has the following main competences: "\: `/k3  
it defines, in conformity with the general line and the orientations of the Party of Labour of Albania, the main directions of the internal and external policies of the state; aTH{'mN  
人民议会行使下列职权: (ZUHvvL  
遵照阿尔巴尼亚劳动党的总路线和国家主要的内外政治方针进行立法。 (7wc*#}  
it approves and amends the Constitution and the laws, decides on the conformity of the laws with the Constitution, and interprets the laws; =^M/{51j  
制定和废除宪法和法律,确保法律同宪法相一致,解释法律。 <cps2*'  
it approves the plan for the economic and cultural development of the country and the state budget; fK>L!=Q  
制定国家经济文化发展的计划和国家财政预算。 fDv2JdiU  
it proclaims partial and general mobilization, the state of emergency, as well as the state of war in case of armed aggression against the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, or when this is necessary to fulfil the obligations deriving from international treaties; f,U.7E  
宣布局部动员和总动员,宣布全国紧急状态,因他国武装侵略阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国或因履行国际条约义务而宣战。 }bb;~  
it ratifies and denounces international treaties of special importance; kMIcK4.MH  
批准和废除特别重要的国际条约。 6AAz  
it grants amnesty; Ua:}Vn&!  
决定大赦。 0yk]o5a++  
it decides on popular referendums; I ce~oz)  
决定公投。 y6(Z`lx  
it elects, appoints, and dismisses the Presidium of the People's Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Court, the Attorney General and his deputies. These organs are responsible to the People's Assembly and render account to it; b6,iZ+]  
选举、任命和解散人民议会常务委员会、部长委员会、最高法院、最高检察长及其副手。这些机关对人民议会负责,向人民议会报告工作。 zVViLUwG  
it defines the administrative territorial structure; (p"%O  
规定行政区域的划分。 =Qy<GeY  
it decides on the creation or dissolving of ministries. 8SMxw~9$  
决定各部的创制和废除。 S\CCrje  
Article 68 ju8> :y8  
第六十八条 u+ 9hL4  
The People's Assembly is comprised of 250 deputies who are elected in constituencies with an equal number of inhabitants. [:7'?$  
人民议会由各个居民数量相等的选区选举产生的二百五十名代表组成。 Z%gh3  
The People's Assembly is elected for a term of 4 years.  on4HKeO  
人民议会每届任期为四年。 t*p71U4+I  
The People's Assembly holds its first session no later than two months from the day of its election. /4yo`  
人民议会的首次会议应在选举之日后两个月举行。 =O~_Q-  
The elections to the People's Assembly are held no later than three months from the day its mandate ends. ))qy;Q,  
人民议会的选举应在其任期届满后三个月内举行。 p'Y^ X  
In case of war or in similar state of emergency, the People's Assembly may continue its activity beyond the normal term as long as the state of emergency continues. b!+hH Hv:  
由于战争或类似的全国紧急状态,人民议会可以延长任期至紧急状态结束。 0- B5`=yU  
In special instances, the People's Assembly may decide its dissolution before the completion of the term for which it has been elected. kXViWOXU^  
特殊情况下,人民议会可以在任期届满之前决定自身的解散。 T~-ycVc  
&j;wCvE4+  
Article 69 |NlO7aQ>2H  
第六十九条 [ |v][Hwv  
The People's Assembly elects its Presidential Council. C2!|OQ9A2  
人民议会选举其常务委员会。 oe^I  
The activity of the People's Assembly is carried out according to the rules approved by it. M*0]ai|;  
人民议会应根据其制定的规则进行活动。 28-RC>,@}  
vz&|J   
Article 70  8$=n j  
第七十条 _O?`@g?i  
The People's Assembly meets in normal session twice per year by decree of the Presidium of the People's Assembly. Y/F6\oh  
人民议会会议每年举行两次,由人民议会常务委员会召集。 /'SNw?&  
The People's Assembly may be summoned in extraordinary session by decree of the Presidium of the People Assembly or at the request of one-third of the deputies. poE0{HOU  
如果常务委员会认为必要,或者由三分之一代表要求,人民议会可以召开特别会议。 XPc^Tq  
The meetings of the People's Assembly open when the majority of the deputies are present. cZ,b?I"Q%  
人民议会会议的举行须半数以上的代表出席。 4Z3su^XR  
{p2!|A&a  
Article 71 `bq<$e  
第七十一条 )$2QZ qX  
The People's Assembly elects from its ranks permanent and temporary commissions.  ^^sE:  
人民议会选举产生其常设的委员会和临时的委员会。 L(6d&t'|-R  
At its first session the People's Assembly elects a commission for the examination of the mandates of the deputies. At the proposal of this commission the People's Assembly confirms or annuls the mandates of the deputies. { l/U6](  
人民议会在其第一次会议中选举产生对代表资格进行检查的委员会。根据此委员会的提议,人民委员会对代表资格认可有效或宣告无效。 yX>K/68  
The permanent commissions have the duty to examine the bills and decrees of a normative character of the Presidium of the People's Assembly, to observe and control the activity of the state organs according to their respective sectors and to present problems to the People's Assembly or the Presidium of the People's Assembly. The temporary commissions are created for special questions. jVe1b1rt~3  
常设的委员会有义务考察人民议会常务委员会的财务和法令,有义务监督和管理国家机关各部门的活动,有义务向人民议会及其常务委员会介绍人民议会的问题。临时的委员会针对特殊问题而设立。 e+7"/icK  
(XTG8W sN  
Article 72 ELoDd&d8  
第七十二条 d0!5j  
It is the duty of the deputy to the People's Assembly to serve the interests of the people, and the cause of the Homeland and socialism conscientiously and loyally, to maintain close contact with his electors, and render account to them. [\e eDa  
人民议会的代表有义务为人民利益而服务,有义务忠诚于祖国和社会主义事业并为之奋斗,有义务保持和他的选民的紧密联系并向他们报告工作。 ?FZ HrA  
The deputy to the People's Assembly has the right to demand explanations from all the state organs and to intervene with them for the precise implementation of the Constitution and laws. UW={[h{.|@  
人民议会的代表有权利要求任何国家机关解释工作,并督促其贯彻实施宪法和法律。 e*kpdS~U&  
The state organs are obliged to examine the requests and proposals by the deputies and to reply to them within defined regulations. #P9~}JB3,  
国家机关有义务考察代表的要求和建议,并根据规定进行答复。 t.y2ff<[U  
x;KOqfawv  
Article 73 !PlEO 2at  
第七十三条 HyQJXw?A:  
The deputy to the People's Assembly enjoys immunity. q9K)Xk$LF  
人民议会代表享有豁免权。 M<Ncb   
The deputy cannot be detained, arrested, or suffer penal punishment, without the approval of the People's Assembly or the Presidium of the People's Assembly, apart from cases in which a grave crime has obviously been committed. i^&~?2  
非经人民议会及其常务委员会批准,代表不得被拘留、逮捕或者遭受刑罚,但涉及严重犯罪的除外。 `$IK`O  
FX&~\kmV'j  
Article 74 H|<[YYk  
第七十四条 eKgBy8tNS0  
The right to initiate legislation belongs to the Presidium of the People's Assembly, to the Council of Ministers, and the deputies. NA`SyKtg_  
法律制定的权利属于人民议会常务委员会、部长委员会和代表。 Jt<_zn_FG  
The laws and other acts of the People's Assembly are considered approved when the majority of the deputies present have voted for them. 558V_y:  
法律和其他条例经人民议会半数以上的出席代表通过后生效。 -0 a/$h  
The laws are proclaimed no later than 15 days after their approval and enter into force 15 days after their proclamation in the Official Gazette, apart from occasions when they themselves envisage otherwise. <al( 7  
法律在通过后十五日内颁布,在官方报刊上颁布15日后正式生效,但法律自身要求通过其他方式颁布的除外。 %(#y 5yJ]  
________________________________________ 0S_~\t  
HZB>{O   
nNV'O(x}  
B. THE PRESIDIUM OF THE PEOPLE'S ASSEMBLY $9#H04.x  
第二节 人民议会常务委员会 xh,qNnGGi  
}OR@~V{Gj  
Article 75 .V/Rfq  
第七十五条 Y_IF;V\  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly is a superior organ of the state power with permanent activity. 4jM Fr,  
人民议会常务委员会是最高国家权力机关的常设机关 8I?Wt W  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly is comprised of the president, 3 vice-presidents, the secretary and 10 members. %P/Jq#FE .  
人民议会常务委员会由主席、三名副主席、书记和十名委员组成。 6Q@j  
IB"w&sBy  
Article 76 'Cfl*iNb  
第七十六条 T^t#  c  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly is elected from the ranks of the People's Assembly at its first session and it continues its activity till the election of a new Presidium. @Zu5VpJ  
人民议会常务委员会由人民议会在其第一次会议上选举产生,并履行职能直至下一届常务委员会选举。 gQg"j)  
Decisions of the Presidium of the People's Assembly are taken on a majority of votes when a majority of its members is present. AaOu L,l  
人民议会常务委员会的决定在半数以上成员出席的情况下,获得半数以上投票通过后生效。 0B/,/KX  
bKY7/w<dP  
Article 77 nZyX|SPk  
第七十七条 Nq[uoaT  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly has these main permanent competences: !8d{q)JZ  
it convenes the sessions of the People's Assembly; /GN<\_o=q  
人民议会常务委员会行使下列职权: vhW2PzHFRi  
召集人民议会会议。 ci.+pF  
it sets the date of elections to the People's Assembly and the people's councils; NZLxHD]mp  
确定人民议会和人民委员会的选举日期。 3g,`.I_  
it awards decorations and titles of honour; rk2j#>l$4  
授予勋章和荣誉称号。 KNvZm;Q6  
it accords or revokes Albanian citizenship and accepts the renunciation of it; 8,4"uuI  
授予或撤销阿尔巴尼亚国籍,接受国籍的放弃。 Lv;^My  
it exercises the right of pardon; v5#j Z$<F  
实施特赦。 JN-y)L/>  
it defines the territorial-administrative divisions; EzM ?Nft  
规定各行政部委的划分。 v\gLWq'  
it enters into, international treaties and ratifies and denounces those which are not examined by the People's Assembly itself; qFCOUl  
决定参加和批准未由人民议会管辖的国际条约和公告。 KE5kOU;  
on the proposal of the Council of Ministers it appoints or dismisses diplomatic representatives; +US!YU  
根据部长委员会的建议,任命或罢免外交代表。 @]%IK(|  
it accepts the credentials and the letters of recall of the diplomatic representatives of foreign states; d9f C<Tp  
接受外国使节递交国书和召回信函。 nLZTK&7}  
it proclaims the laws and referendums decided by the People's Assembly. ;;OAQ`  
宣布人民议会决定的法律与公投。 ifMRryN4  
Article 78 GX!G>  
第七十八条 3</_c1~  
Between sessions of the People's Assembly, the Presidium of the People's Assembly exercises these competences: u^ +7hkk  
it controls the implementations of the laws and decisions of the People's Assembly; Ha0M) 0Anv  
人民议会会议闭会期间,人民议会常务委员会行使下列职权: Z*] 9E^  
管理法律和人民议会决定的贯彻实施。 B[Ku\A6&  
it controls the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Court, the Attorney General and any other state organ, and summons them to report; abmYA#  
管理部长委员会、最高法院、最高检察长和其他国家机关,并召集其报告工作。 *MhRW,=  
it appoints or dismisses Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers or individual ministers on the proposal of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, it appoints or dismisses individual members or the Vice-Presidents of the Supreme Court and the deputies of the Attorney General. In each case the decrees for their appointment or dismissal must be approved by the People's Assembly; WTQ\PANAaR  
根据部长委员会主席及委员会的建议任命或罢免部长委员会副主席和部长。任命和罢免最高法院的副院长和法官以及最高检察长的副手。所有的任命和罢免法令须经人民议会的认可。 .LnGL]/  
it issues decrees and decisions; the decrees of a normative character are presented for approval to the People's Assembly at its next session; hB]Np1('  
发布法令和决定。法令送交下一次人民议会会议通过。 Y|F9}hj(  
it makes interpretations of laws and presents them for approval to the People's Assembly at its next session. WtsFz*`)y  
解释法律并送交下一次人民议会会议通过。 oQ/E}Zk@  
when the convening of the People's Assembly is impossible, it proclaims partial or general mobilization, the state of emergency, as well as the state of war in case of armed aggression against the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, or when this is necessary to fulfil the obligations deriving from international treaties. In time of war, in case the convening of the People's Assembly is impossible, the Presidium of the People's Assembly exercises all the competences of the People's Assembly apart from changes in the Constitution. >-RQ]?^  
在不能召开人民议会的情况下,宣布局部动员和总动员,宣布全国紧急状态,因他国武装侵略阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国或因履行国际条约义务而宣战。战争时期,在不能召开人民议会的情况下,人民议会常务委员会行使人民议会除修改宪法以外的所有职权。 Af~$TyX  
,hm\   
Article 79 >UTBO|95y  
第七十九条 \j}ZB<.>  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly directs and controls the activity of the people's councils. }^ ~F|  
人民议会常务委员会指导和管理人民委员会的活动。 _2Zx?<] 2E  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly may disband people's councils, appoint the respective temporary executive committees, as well as decide on the election of a new people's council. ;LKkbT 5  
人民议会常务委员会可以解散人民委员会、任命临时执行委员会、决定新一届人民委员会的选举。 g]l'' 7G  
The Presidium of the People's Assembly abrogades the unlawful or irregular acts of the Council of Ministers, of the people's councils and of the executive committees. ) yi E@ X  
人民议会常务委员会撤销部长委员会、人民委员会和执行委员会的违法违规行为。 q"CVcLi9  
________________________________________ s0TORl6Z|  
U*rcd-@  
-lr vKrt7  
CHAPTER II "b~+;<}Q  
第二章 /e5O"@  
imhwY#D  
THE SUPREME ORGANS OF THE STATE ADMINISTRATION .Bl\Z  
最高国家行政机关 p}}R-D&K  
nK1Slg#U  
Article 80 XAD- 'i  
第八十条 ih-#5M@  
The Council of Ministers is the supreme executive and administrative organ. NR$3%0 nC6  
部长委员会是最高行政执行机关。 { T/[cu<  
The Council of Ministers is appointed at the first session of the People's Assembly. @o].He@L<j  
部长委员会由人民议会第一次会议任命。 W<h)HhyG  
The Council of Ministers comprises the Chairman, the Vice-Chairmen and the Ministers. h ]5(].  
部长委员会由主席、副主席和各部部长组成。 ydEoC$?0  
As a rule, the members of the Council of Ministers are appointed from among the ranks of the deputies to the People's Assembly. j.[.1G*("  
按照规定,部长委员会成员从人民议会代表中产生。 M5 LfRBO  
The decisions of the Council of Ministers are taken on the majority of votes, when the majority of its members is present. etQCzYIhn  
部长常务委员会的决定在半数以上成员出席的情况下,获得半数以上投票通过后生效。 i'<[DjMDlm  
pHGYQ;:L  
Article 81 q_:4w$>  
第八十一条 $ j%'{)gK  
The Council of Ministers has the following main competences: Gm&Za,4%4  
it directs the activity for the realization of the internal and external policies of the state;  ^ 'MT0j  
部长委员会行使下列职权: 1/B>XkCJ  
指导国家国内外政策的实施。 @f>-^  
it promulgates decisions, ordinances and instructions on the basis of the Constitution and the laws and for their implementation; fC d&D  
根据宪法和法律,发布决定、条例和指示,以贯彻实施宪法和法律。 d UE,U=  
it directs and controls the activity of the ministries, other central organs of state administration, and the executive committees of the people's councils, and defines their internal organization; e-/&$Qq  
指导和管理部委、其他国家行政中央机关、人民委员会的执行委员会的活动,并规定其内部组织结构。 0@0w+&*"@  
it works out the draft-plan for the economic and cultural development of the country, the draft- budget of the state, organizes and controls the implementation of the plan and the budget, directs and organizes the finances of the state and the monetary and credit system; gT{Q#C2Baw  
制定经济文化发展计划的草案,制定国家财政预算草案。组织和管理计划和预算的实施,指导和组织国家财政和货币体系。 'T;P;:!\  
it directs the activity for the fulfilment of duties in the field of the defence of the country, in conformity with the decisions of the Defence Council; s*KhF'fN  
遵照国防委员会的决定,指导各方履行保卫祖国的义务。 wYXQlxdy  
it takes measures for the security, protection, and strengthening of the socialist juridical order and the rights of citizens; W &W5lArr  
采取措施保卫和巩固社会主义法制和公民权利。 tyDU @M  
it enters into, and approves international agreements and denounces those international agreements not subject to ratification. dh\'<|\K  
批准加入国际协议,通知废止未被批准的国际协议。 Pl06:g2I  
Article 82 e`_ LEv  
第八十二条 <]t%8GB2V  
The Council of Ministers abrogates the unlawful or irregular acts of the Ministers and other central organs of the state administration and of executive committees of the people's councils. ~8Fk(E_  
部长委员会撤销部长、其他国家行政中央机关、人民委员会的执行委员会的违法违规行为。  :A_@,Q  
The Council of Ministers suspends the implementation of unlawful or irregular decisions of the people's council, and presents the question of their abrogation to the higher people's council, or to the Presidium of the People's Assembly. Lnl(2xD  
部长委员会终止人民委员会违法违规决定的实施,并将其问题送交上一级人民委员会或人民议会常务委员会。 ;u ({\K  
dh iuI|?@  
Article 83 /)>3Nq4Zx  
第八十三条 !;v|'I  
The Presidium of the Council of Ministers comprises the Chairman and the Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers. B)g[3gQ  
部长委员会常务委员会由部长委员会主席和副主席组成。 '3tCH)s  
The Presidium of the Council of Ministers supervises, controls and takes decisions on the implementation of tasks set by the Council of Ministers. ifQ*,+@fxR  
部长委员会常务委员会监督和管理部长委员会所确定的任务的贯彻和实施。 k@J&IJ  
The Chairman of the Council of Ministers represents the Council of Ministers, presides over the meetings and directs its activity. zrgk]n;Pq  
部长委员会主席代表部长委员会,主持会议,指导工作。 xwq (N_  
_4So{~Gf1  
Article 84 #&aqKV Y  
第八十四条 U(g:zae  
The ministries are central organs of the state administration, specialized in particular branches of activity, which are directed by members of the Council of Ministers. }@+0/ W?\.  
各部委是国家行政中央机关,由部长委员会各部长指导各部具体工作。 ;bib/  
<{cQM$ #  
Article 85 *Kg ks4  
第八十五条 =s2*H8]  
The ministers are responsible for the activity of their respective ministries and of the Council of, Ministers, they direct and control the organs, enterprises, institutions and economic organizations of their sector. #OD/$f_  
各部长负责各自部委的工作,并对部长委员会负责。部长指导并管理各自部门下辖的机关、企业、社团和经济组织。 266h\2t6  
On matters within their competences, the ministers issue orders, rules and instructions according to the laws, ordinances and decisions of the Council of Ministers, and for their implementation. !)0;&e5  
在自身管辖范围内,部长根据法律、部长委员会的条例和决定发布命令、规章和指示,并保障其贯彻实施。 E A1?)|}n  
ChPmX+.i_  
Article 86 b9HtR-iR;  
第八十六条 f+,qNvBY/  
The ministers abrogate the unlawful or irregular ordinances and instructions of the organs, enterprises or institutions dependent on them and suspend the application of the unlawful or irregular decisions of the executive committees of the people's councils, which have to do with their respective sphere of activity, representing the question of their abrogation to the Council of Ministers. <)c)%'v  
部长撤销下属机关、企业和社团的违法违规条例和指示,终止人民委员会的执行委员会申请的违法违规决定,并将问题送交部长委员会。 /]Md~=yNp  
________________________________________ {@{']Y  
9vc2VB$  
L+i=VGm0  
CHAPTER III YfKdR"i+.  
第三章 ~-Qw.EdC  
D'PI1 0t  
THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY AND THE ARMED FORCES plstZ,#j  
国防和武装力量 vw/J8'  
$Sip$\+*  
Article 87 sBg.u  
第八十七条 )}Kf=  
The state safeguards the victories of the people's revolution and the socialist construction, defends the freedom, national independence and territorial integrity of the country. 0pd'93C  
国家保卫人民革命和社会主义建设的胜利果实,保卫自由、民族独立和国家领土完整。 >@_^fw)  
The territory of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is inalienable and its borders are inviolable. E4/Dr}4  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的领土不可分割,其边境不可侵犯。 flbd0NB  
N5 6g+,w%)  
Article 88 (iX+{a%"  
第八十八条 !z3jTv  
The defence of the Homeland and of the victories of socialism is ensured by the armed people, organized in the Armed Forces, which comprise the People's Army, the forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the People's Voluntary self-defence forces. kxhWq:[c  
保卫祖国和社会主义的胜利依靠由武装起来的人民所组成的海陆空三军,包括人民军队、内政部武装力量和人民志愿自卫队。 @K !T,U  
The People's Army, as the main force for the defence of the Homeland, is the army of the people and serves the people. CkQ3# L<2  
人民军队作为保卫祖国的主要力量,是人民的军队,为人民服务。 HQhM'x  
The Armed Forces are led by the Party of Labour of Albania. I1M%J@Cz  
海陆空三军由阿尔巴尼亚劳动党领导。 4vB<fPN  
t-bB>q#3>  
Article 89 +',S]Edx  
第八十九条 ]Q)OL  
The Defence Council is created to direct, organize and mobilize all the forces and resources of the country in defence of the Homeland. @`- 4G2IU}  
国防委员会通过指导、组织和动员全国的武装力量和武装资源来保卫祖国。 ,w4V?>l  
The First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and Chairman of the Defence Council. >!1-lfa8  
阿尔巴尼亚劳动党中央委员会第一书记担任海陆空三军总司令和国防委员会主席。 w+u3*/Zf  
The composition of the Defence Council is defined by the Presidium of the People's Assembly on the proposal of the Chairman of the Defence Council; ^8N}9a  
国防委员会的组成由人民议会常务委员会根据国防委员会主席的建议决定。 M-Y_ Wb3  
o`z]|G1''  
Article 90 sWnLEw  
第九十条 JOeeU8C  
No one has the right to sign or accept, in the name of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, the capitulation or occupation of the country. Any such act is condemned as treason to the country. LBDjIpR6  
禁止任何主体以阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的名义签署或接受投降或被占领的条约。此类行为一律被视为叛国。 mGg+.PFsM  
>@ .  
Article 91 Yufc{M00  
第九十一条 wgGl[_)  
The establishment of foreign military bases and the stationing of foreign troops in the territory of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is prohibited. TJXT-\Vk  
在阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国领土内,禁止建立外国军事基地,禁止驻扎外国军队。 t&e{_|i#+  
________________________________________ z1X`o  
,/|T-Ka  
hf&9uHN%7m  
CHAPTER IV z9Rp`z&`E  
第四章 @_}P-h  
hv>\gBe i  
THE LOCAL ORGANS OF THE STATE POWER AND STATE ADMINISTRATION >(t6.=  
地方国家权力和行政机关 ^SrJu:Q_  
/hyN;.hpOO  
Article 92 /jJw0 5;L  
第九十二条 smo~7;  
The people's councils are organs of the state power, which carry out the governing of the country in the respective territorial administrative units, with the broad participation of the working masses. k~1?VQ+?M  
人民委员会是国家权力机关,负责管理所辖地方的行政事务,充分吸收劳动群众参与其中。 Qh\60f>0  
The people's councils direct all social life in the political, economic, social-cultural fields, the defence of the country and the protection of the socialist juridical order, reconciling the local interests with the general state interests. u.xnOcOH!  
人民委员会指导政治、经济、社会文化、国防、维护社会主义法制、促使地方利益与公共利益协调发展等社会生活各方面的事务。 &&>ekG 9@  
The people's councils are elected for a term of three years. 9CD_ os\h  
人民委员会每届任期为三年。 z!9-:  
9~[Y-cpoi  
Article 93 ePo}y])2  
第九十三条 U&p${IcEm  
The people's council adopts the local plan and budget; from its members it elects the executive committee and the commissions of the council and discharges them; it appoints and discharges the chiefs of the sections of the executive committee; it directs and controls the activity of the people's councils at lower levels. It issues ordinances and decisions within its competences. -6B4sZpzD  
人民委员会执行地方计划与财政预算;人民委员会选举产生或决定撤销执行委员会和特别委员会;人民委员会任命和罢免执行委员会的部门首长;人民委员会指导和管理下级人民委员会的活动;人民委员会在其权限范围内发布条例和决定。 -e:`|(Mo  
tK\~A,=  
Article 94 1bX<$>x9u  
第九十四条 XZd,&YiaG  
The meetings of the people's council open when the majority of its members is present. r* Ca}Z  
人民委员会会议的举行须半数以上的成员出席 #KZBsa@p  
The decisions of the people's council are taken on the majority of votes of its members present. B tcy)LRk  
人民委员会的决定经半数以上的出席代表通过后生效。 rFL;'C j@  
W7nw6;7=  
Article 95 g`QEu 5v  
第九十五条 /mzlH  
A higher people's council may dissolve a lower level people's council, appoints the provisional executive committee and decides on the elections for a new people's council. [/8%3  
上级人民委员会可以解散下级人民委员会,任命临时执行委员会,并决定新一届人民委员会的选举。 b d!Y\OD  
A higher people's council may dismiss the executive committee of a lower level people's council and order a new election. _X x/(.O  
上级人民委员会可以解散下级人民委员会的执行委员会,并组织新的选举。 I%KYtv~ `  
The people's council abrogates the unlawful or irregular acts of its executive committee, of the lower level people's council and the respective executive committee. 7 B66]3v  
人民委员会撤销其执行委员会、下级人民委员会和下级人民委员会的执行委员会的违法违规行为。 lL0APT;  
Slc\&Eb  
Article 96 - 1gVeT&  
第九十六条 63IM]J  
It is the duty of the members of the people's council to serve the people conscientiously and loyally, to maintain close ties with the electors and render account to them. They have the right to control the state organs, enterprises, institutions and agricultural cooperatives and demand from them the precise implementation of the socialist law. {E|$8)58i  
人民委员会成员有义务忠实勤勉地为人民服务、有义务同选民保持紧密联系并向他们报告工作。人民委员会成员有权利管理国家机关、企业、社团、农业合作社并要求其贯彻实施社会主义法律。 5\VWCI  
The respective state organs are obliged to examine the remarks of the members of the people's councils and take the necessary measures. [ub e6  
国家机关有义务考察人民委员会成员的评论并采取必要的措施。 7WzxA=*#  
The members of the people's councils enjoy immunity within the territorial unit under the administration of the people's council. They cannot be detained, arrested or subjected to penal prosecution without the consent of the people's council or the executive committee, except in cases when a grave crime has obviously been committed. j^RmrOg ,  
人民委员会成员享有在所属委员会辖区内享有豁免权,非经人民委员会或执行委员会批准不得被拘留、逮捕或提起刑事诉讼,但涉及严重犯罪的除外。 >Cq<@$I2EB  
19%i mf  
Article 97 gL /9/b4  
第九十七条 U- k`s[dv  
The executive committee is the executive and administrative organ of the people's council. IO<6  
执行委员会是人民委员会的行政执行机关 z},# ~L6$q  
The executive committee continues its activity even after the expiration of the mandate of the people's council which has elected it, until the first meeting of the new people's council. &s!@29DXR  
执行委员会在人民委员会期满后继续履行职能,直到新一届人民委员会第一次会议召开。 +G>\-tjSD  
 6(R<{{  
Article 98 >9Vn.S  
第九十八条 V0a3<6@4  
Between sessions of the people's council, the executive committee exercises the rights and duties of the people's council, with the exception of those which, by law, come within the competence of the people's council alone. zX i 'kB  
人民委员会闭会期间,由执行委员会行使其权利与义务,但法律规定由人民委员会专属的除外。 }"%N4(Kd  
The executive committee renders account to the people's council about its activity, presents its more important decisions for approval, and reports on the implementation of decisions of the people's council. XW92gI<O  
执行委员会向人民委员会报告工作,送交重要决定申请批准,报告人民委员会决定的贯彻实施情况。  goWuw}?  
DzRFMYBR  
Article 99 %E;'ln4h&,  
第九十九条 &mM0AA'\?H  
The executive committee of the people's council is dependent on the people's council which has elected it and the next higher administrative executive organ. K wVbbC3  
人民委员会的执行委员会对选举产生它的人民委员会和上一级执行委员会负责。 kD"{g#c  
The executive committee of a higher people's council abrogates the unlawful and irregular acts of a lower level executive committee and suspends those of the lower level people's council, presenting the question of their abrogation to the competent people's council.  C9)@jK%  
上级人民委员会的执行委员会撤销下级执行委员会的违法违规行为,终止下级人民委员会的执行委员会的工作,并将问题送交相关人民委员会。 :.`2^  
|k00Z+O(  
Article 100 j B{8u&kz)  
第一百条 fI|$K )K  
The specialized organs created under the executive committees are dependent on the people's council, its executive committee, and the higher organs of the state administration, render account to them and to the masses of working people. @>7%qS  
执行委员会设立下的专门机构对人民委员会、执行委员会和上级国家行政机关负责,向它们和劳动人民报告工作。 KqP#6^ _  
________________________________________ hgE71H\s  
Z4bNV?OH  
#B w0,\  
CHAPTER V wb ;xRP"w  
第五章 uHNCSz H(  
1{.9uw"2S  
THE PEOPLE'S COURTS 2B`JGFcdcB  
人民法院 iN.n8MN=I  
TkF[x%o  
Article 101 y<.5xq5_3  
第一百零一条 l Nv|M)I  
The people's courts are the organs which administer justice. !PE]C!*gv&  
人民法院是司法机关。 qcRs$-J  
The people's courts protect the socialist juridical order, fight for prevention of crimes, educate the masses of working people to respect and implement the socialist law, relying on their active participation. "uf%iJ:%  
人民法院依靠广大劳动人民的积极参与,保护社会主义法制,努力预防犯罪,教育广大劳动群众尊重和贯彻实施社会主义法律。 )YI(/*+]  
At the head of the organs of justice is the Supreme Court which directs and controls the activity of the courts. The Supreme Court is elected at the first session of the People's Assembly. The other people's courts are elected by the people, according to the method defined by law. og>uj>H&  
最高法院是司法机关的领导机关,指导和管理下级法院的工作。最高法院由人民议会第一次会议选举产生。其他人民法院根据法定方式,由人民选举产生。 CU~PT.  
Court organization and trial procedure are defined by law. $Z>'Jp  
法院的组织和审判的程序由法律规定。 VS|2|n1<6  
;O #>Y  
Article 102 @KUWxFak  
第一百零二条 OB}Ib]  
The courts judge penal and civil cases and other cases which are within their competence according to the law. .o}v#W+st  
法院根据法定管辖权,审理刑事、民事和其他案件。 %xt^698&X  
Judgment is done with the participation of assistant judges and in public sittings, with the exception of cases when it has been decided otherwise by law. lUMdrt0@z  
审判在陪审员的参与下公开进行,但法律另有规定的除外。 FE;x8(;W8  
During the trial the Albanian language is used. Persons who do not know Albanian may use their own language and speak through an interpreter. 7>*vI7O0l  
审判期间使用阿尔巴尼亚语。不懂阿尔巴尼亚语的当事人可以使用自己的语言,通过翻译人进行交流。 [a<SDMR  
The accused enjoys the right of defence. 8Cv?Z.x5  
被告享有辩护权。 -35;j' a  
uXl3k:_n  
Article 103 f`66h M[  
第一百另三条 J4U1t2@)9  
The court is independent in its judgment of a case, it takes its decision on the basis of the law alone, and it pronounces its verdict in the name of the people. W=4FFl[  
法院独立审判案件。法院审判案件的依据只有法律。法院以人民的名义进行宣判。 ygl0k \  
The verdict may be annulled or amended only by the competent higher court. J9S>yLQK  
判决只能由上级法院撤销或更改。  @`Su0W+.  
________________________________________ B#1;r-^P<  
X#;bh78&-  
L9#g)tf 8T  
CHAPTER VI %vi83%$'4  
第六章 [z9Z5sLO  
FHI ;)wn=  
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE iO; 7t@]-  
检察院  %D "I  
SMK_6?MZ  
Article 104 ^_mj  
第一百零四条 ;gr9/Vl  
The duty of the Attorney General's Office is to control the precise and uniform implementation of the laws by the ministries and other central and local organs, by the courts, the organs of investigation, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens. Jxm.cC5z.  
检察院的义务是督促各部委和其他中央地方机关、法院、侦查机关、企业、社团、组织、公务员和公民准确地贯彻实施法律。 ,$&&-p I]  
The Attorney General's Office has the right to protest against every illegal act and to demand from the respective organs its abrogation or amendment. The request of the Attorney General must be examined within the period defined by law, otherwise the implementation of the act is suspended. KKf   
检察院有权对一切违法行为提出抗议,要求代表机关撤销或改动其行为。检察院的要求必须依照法律进行考察,否则相关行为必须被暂停。 $PHvA6D  
k|d+#u[Mj@  
Article 105 SasJic2M  
第一百零五条 >[*qf9$  
The Attorney General puts before the People's Assembly and before the Presidium of the People's Assembly cases in which the laws and decrees are not in conformity with the Constitution, and it also puts before the Council of Ministers cases in which its decisions and instructions do not conform with the law. x-3\Ls[I  
检察院将违反宪法的法律和法令送交人民议会及其常务委员会,将违反法律的决定和指示送交部长委员会。 ,zY$8y]  
kMd.h[X~  
Article 106 ]OzUGXxo~  
第一百零六条 ?6Y?a2 |  
The Attorney General and his assistants are appointed at the first session of the People's Assembly. | Xy6PN8  
最高检察长及其副手由人民议会第一次会议任命。 ~e@z;]CiY  
The attorneys are appointed by the Presidium of the People's Assembly. R~$qo)v  
检察长由人民议会常务委员会任命。 Q'0d~6n&{  
________________________________________ wAW5 Z0D  
g}',(tPMZ  
8-77d^cprR  
PART THREE 04=c-~&q  
第三编 ^DwYOo2B  
________________________________________ b1?'gn~  
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CHAPTER I 6~w@PRy  
第一章 ?<'}r7D   
V 6re qEh  
THE EMBLEM, THE FLAG, THE CAPITAL CITY I9hK} D  
国徽、国旗和首都 ;M dlwQ$`  
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Article 107 :X (=z;B;N  
第一百零七条 ]3.;PWa:  
The emblem of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania bears a black, double-headed eagle, encircled by two sheaves of wheat with a five-pointed red star at the top and which are tied at the bottom with a red ribbon, on which the date »24th May 1944« is inscribed. IB] l1<  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的国徽中间是黑色的双头鹰,周围是齿轮和麦穗,顶部是五角红星,下方是缠绕的红绶带,绶带上记有“1944年5月24日”。 v #j$;  
-C?ZB}`   
Article 108 'AS|ZRr/  
第一百零八条 Gu\q%'I  
The state flag of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania presents a red background with a black double-headed eagle in the middle, above which there is a five-pointed red star, outlined in gold. The ratio between the width and the length of the flag is 1 x 1,4. `&ckZiq  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的国旗是中间有双头鹰、双头鹰上方有金边五角红星的红旗。国旗的长宽比例为1.4比1。 q'Tf,a  
Cd}<a?m,  
Article 109 lp%pbx43s  
第一百零九条 6zuTQ^pz  
The capital of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is Tirana. mSl.mi(JiZ  
阿尔巴尼亚社会主义人民共和国的首都是地拉那。 N~zdWnSZ@G  
________________________________________ <k'h:KB?`  
R)s:rJQ=p  
\\B(r  
CHAPTER II 68C%B9.b'  
第二章 _H7x9 y=  
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FINAL DISPOSITIONS p}pjfG  
附则 B !L{  
7CURhDdk  
Article 110 yZU6xY  
第一百一十条 h_,i&d@(  
The Constitution is the fundamental law of the state. X[BIA+6  
宪法是国家的根本大法。 yg=q;Z>[~  
All activity for the creation of juridical norms is conducted on the basis of the Constitution and in complete conformity with it. ?ri?GmI|  
所有立法活动必须以宪法为基础,与宪法相一致。 q01wbO3-"  
]dmrkZz:  
Article 111 `MN4uC  
第一百一十一条 RmeD$>7  
Proposals for amendments to the Constitution can be presented by the Presidium of the People's Assembly, the Council of Ministers, or by two-fifths of the deputies. ?(F6#"/E  
宪法的修改,由人民议会常务委员会、部长委员会或五分之二的人民议会代表提出。 )e=D(qd  
Approval of, or amendments to, the Constitution are done by the People's Assembly by a majority of two-thirds of all the deputies. BLf>_b Uk  
宪法的修改,由人民议会所有代表的三分之二以上的多数通过。 pG^  
rCbDu&k]  
Article 112 ;LPfXpR  
第一百一十二条 Ru!iR#s)!  
This Constitution comes into force immediately. /1V xc 6  
宪法即日起生效。

绍库布兰德 2012-05-08 10:45
翻译:伏少华

绍库布兰德 2012-05-08 10:48
哥伦比亚和布基纳法索霍查主义游击队最近均连战连捷

彭桓武 2014-08-24 22:55
天哦,我以为这份资料要永远被“中国修正主义”当局屏蔽,永远找不到了呢。赶紧复制到txt文档!

反抗的呼声 2015-09-07 19:10
Quote:
引用第2楼绍库布兰德于2012-05-08 10:48发表的  : )[DpK=[N^p  
哥伦比亚和布基纳法索霍查主义游击队最近均连战连捷
ype"7p\  
第四个人是谁? 卢卡奇?

tomlion 2016-04-06 10:51
不错,网上一直找不到。

TenrenRabtan 2016-04-06 11:01
Quote:
引用第3楼彭桓武于2014-08-24 22:55发表的  : _6J<YQK  
天哦,我以为这份资料要永远被“中国修正主义”当局屏蔽,永远找不到了呢。赶紧复制到txt文档!
:28@J?jjO  
天哦,这种评论居然不被警告屏蔽

TenrenRabtan 2016-04-06 11:02
Quote:
引用楼主绍库布兰德于2012-05-08 10:02发表的 进步的宪法 : 69?I?,7  
The Albanian people have blazed the trail of history sword in hand. In struggle against their internal and external enemies, they have defended their existence as a people and nation, have fought for national freedom and independence, for their land and mother tongue, for their livelihood and social justice. After centuries of bondage, they achieved a major victory with the creation of the independent Albanian national state in November 28, 1912. T) 0\QYf0o   
阿尔巴尼亚人民已经将历史之剑握于自己手中了。在同国内外敌人的斗争中,阿尔巴尼亚人民捍卫了自己的民族和国家,并且为了民族的独立和自由、为了他们的土地和母语、为了的生存和社会的正义而战斗。在受奴役的时代过去之后,阿尔巴尼亚人民于1912年11月28日取得了创建独立的阿尔巴尼亚民族国家的伟大胜利。 kaV%0Of]  
The national democratic and revolutionary movement was given a new impulse and content with the triumph of the great October Socialist Revolution and with the spread of communist ideas, which marked a decisive turning point for the fate of the Albanian people, too. !FO^:V<|5   5~*=#v:`  
伴随着十月革命的胜利和共产主义理念的传播,我国的民主革命运动被赋予了新的动力和内容,这也成为了阿尔巴尼亚人民的前途和命运的重大转折点。 %~ ;nlDw  
.......
uFMs ^^#  
乍一看,像份措辞优美的散文

罗贾瓦 2018-01-21 12:43
伟大的阿尔巴尼亚劳动党呀。

暮色琉璃 2018-02-05 12:56
听党指挥,能打胜仗,作风优良,积极团结在以霍查同志为中心的劳动党中央下,为建设新的红色山鹰努力奋斗。 DIL)7K4  
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